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Preventive and mitigation measures

When earthquake strikes a building is thrown mostly from side to side, and also up and down along with the building foundation the building structure tends to stay at rest, similar to a passenger standing on a bus that accelerates quickly. Building damage is related to the characteristics of the building, and the duration and severity of the ground shaking. Larger earthquakes tend to shake longer and harder and therefore cause more damage to structures
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No buildings can be made 100% safe against earthquake forces. Instead buildings and infrastructures can be made earthquake resistant to certain extent depending upon serviceability requirements. Earthquake resistant design of buildings depends upon providing the building with strength, stiffness and inelastic deformation capacity which are great enough to withstand a given level of earthquake-generated force. This is generally accomplished through the selection of an appropriate structural configuration and the careful detailing of structural members, such as beams and columns, and the connections between them
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There are several different experimental techniques that can be used to test the response of structures to verify their seismic performance, one of which is the use of an earthquake shaking table (a shaking table, or simply shake table). This is a device for shaking structural models or building components with a wide range of simulated ground motions, including reproductions of recorded earthquakes time-histories.
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The non-engineered traditional construction commonly practiced in different areas of the country depends greatly on the respective local context of the area. In other words the technologies vary significantly from area to area. These technologies have evolved and as a result have got optimized. In India an overwhelming majority of houses, are of non-engineered load bearing type. These structures, especially houses, have been traditionally built over the past century or longer, using the locally available materials and the locally practiced technologies that have been most common in the area including stone, bricks, earth, lime and timber for walls, and clay tiles, stone or mud for roofing supported on under-structure made of local timber such as Teak, Acacia, Neem, Deodar, Pine and also Bamboo. In the recently built structures one also finds a mix of the traditional and new materials/technology such as cement, concrete and steel. The structures have pitched roof or flat roof, and are single story or double story.

After Bhuj earthquake significant effort were taken to repair and strengthening of damaged buildings. A guideline for Repair and strengthening guide for earthquake damaged lowrise domestic buildings in Gujarat is made available here Click here

Seismic retrofitting
Seismic retrofitting is the modification of existing structures to make them more resistant to seismic activity, ground motion, or soil failure due to earthquakes. With better understanding of seismic demand on structures and with our recent experiences with large earthquakes near urban centers, the need of seismic retrofitting is well acknowledged.
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