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Bullet Earthquake
Home » Geological Disasters » Earthquake

Scale
Richter
Approximate
Magnitude
Approximate
TNT for
Seismic Energy
Yield
Joule equivalent Example
0.0 1 kg (2.2 lb) 4.2 MJ  
0.5 5.6 kg (12.4 lb) 23.5 MJ Large Hand grenade
1.0 32 kg (70 lb) 134.4 MJ Construction site blast
1.5 178 kg (392 lb) 747.6 MJ WWII conventional bombs
2.0 1 metric ton 4.2 GJ Late WWII conventional bombs
2.5 5.6 metric tons 23.5 GJ WWII blockbuster bomb
3.0 32 metric tons 134.4 GJ Massive Ordnance Air Blast bomb
3.5 178 metric tons 747.6 GJ Chernobyl nuclear disaster, 1986
4.0 1 kiloton 4.2 TJ Small atomic bomb
4.5 5.6 kilotons 23.5 TJ  
5.0 32 kilotons 134.4 TJ Nagasaki atomic bomb (actual seismic yield was negligible since it detonated in the atmosphere. The Hiroshima atomic bomb was 15 kilotons )
Lincolnshire earthquake (UK), 2008
5.4 150 kilotons 625 TJ 2008 Chino Hills earthquake (Los Angeles, United States)
5.5 178 kilotons 747.6 TJ ittle Skull Mtn. earthquake (NV, USA), 1992 Alum Rock earthquake (CA, USA), 2007
6.0 1 megaton 4.2 PJ Double Spring Flat earthquake (NV, USA), 1994
6.5 5.6 megatons 23.5 PJ Rhodes (Greece), 2008
6.7 16.2 megatons 67.9 PJ Northridge earthquake (CA, USA), 1994
6.9 26.8 megatons 112.2 PJ San Francisco Bay Area earthquake (CA, USA), 1989
7.0 32 megatons 134.4 PJ  
7.1 50 megatons 210 PJ Energy released is equivalent to that of Tsar Bomba, the largest thermonuclear weapon ever tested.
7.5 178 megatons 747.6 PJ Kashmir earthquake (Pakistan), 2005
Antofagasta earthquake (Chile), 2007
7.8 600 megatons 2.4 EJ Tangshan earthquake (China), 1976`
8.0 1 gigaton 4.2 EJ Toba eruption 75,000 years ago; which, according to the Toba catastrophe theory, affected modern human evolution
San Francisco earthquake (CA, USA), 1906
Queen Charlotte earthquake (BC, Canada), 1949
México City earthquake (Mexico), 1985
Gujarat earthquake (India), 2001
8.5 5.6 gigatons 23.5 EJ Sumatra earthquake (Indonesia), 2007
9.0 32 gigatons 134.4 EJ Lisbon Earthquake (Lisbon, Portugal), All Saints Day, 1755
9.2 90.7 gigatons 379.7 EJ Anchorage earthquake (AK, USA), 1964
9.3 114 gigatons 477 EJ Indian Ocean earthquake, 2004 (40 ZJ in this case)
9.5 178 gigatons 747.6 EJ Valdivia earthquake (Chile), 1960 (251 ZJ in this case)
10.0 1 teraton 4.2 ZJ Never recorded.


Richter
Magnitudes
Description Earthquake Effects Frequency of
Occurrence
Less than 2.0 Micro Microearthquakes, not felt. About 8,000 per day
2.0-2.9 Minor Generally not felt, but recorded. About 1,000 per day
3.0-3.9 Minor Often felt, but rarely causes damage. 49,000 per year (est.)
4.0-4.9 Light Noticeable shaking of indoor items, rattling noises. Significant damage unlikely. 6,200 per year (est.)
5.0-5.9 Moderate Can cause major damage to poorly constructed buildings over small regions. At most slight damage to well-designed buildings. 800 per year
6.0-6.9 Strong Can be destructive in areas up to about 160 kilometres (100 mi) across in populated areas. 120 per year
7.0-7.9 Major Can cause serious damage over larger areas. 18 per year
8.0-8.9 Great Can cause serious damage in areas several hundred miles across. 1 per year
9.0-9.9 Great Devastating in areas several thousand miles across. 1 per 20 years
10.0+ Epic Never recorded; see below for equivalent seismic energy yield. Extremely rare (Unknown)
(Based on U.S. Geological Survey documents.)

JMA Scale
Shindo scale
Magnitude-
Shindo
Number
(Shindo
Number in
Japanese) /
Meter
reading
People Indoor situations Outdoor situations Wooden houses Reinforced
concrete
buildings
Lifelines Ground
and
slopes
Peak ground acceleration
0 (0) / 0-0.4 Imperceptible to people. Less than 0.008 m/s²
1 (1) / 0.5-1.4 Felt by only some people in the building. 0.008–0.025 m/s²
2 (2) / 1.5-2.4 Felt by most people in the building. Some people awake. Hanging objects such as lamps swing slightly 0.025–0.08 m/s²
3 (3) / 2.5-3.4 Felt by most people in the building. Some people are frightened. Dishes in a cupboard rattle occasionally Electric wires swing slightly 0.08–0.25 m/s²
4 (4) / 3.5-4.4 Many people are frightened. Some people try to escape from danger. Most sleeping people awake. Hanging objects swing considerably and dishes in a cupboard rattle. Unstable ornaments fall occasionally. Electric wires swing considerably. People walking on a street and some people driving automobiles notice the tremor. 0.25–0.80 m/s²
5-lower (5弱) / 4.5-4.9 Most people try to escape from a danger. Some people find it difficult to move. Hanging objects swing violently.Most Unstable ornaments fall. Occasionally, dishes in a cupboard and books on a bookshelf fall and furniture moves. People notice electric-light poles swing. Occasionally, windowpanes are broken and fall, unreinforced concrete-block walls collapse, and roads suffer damage. Occasionally, less earthquake-resistant houses suffer damage to walls and pillars. Occasionally, cracks are formed in walls of less earthquake-resistant buildings. A safety device cuts off the gas service at some houses. On rare occasions water pipes are damaged and water service is interrupted. (Electrical service is interrupted at some houses) Occasionally, cracks appear in soft ground. and rockfalls and small slope failures take place in mountainous districts 0.80–1.40 m/s²
5-upper (5強) / 5.0-5.4 Many people are considerably frightened and find it difficult to move. Most dishes in a cupboard and most books on a bookshelf fall. Occasionally, a TV set on a rack falls, heavy furniture such as a chest of drawers falls, sliding doors slip out of their groove and the deformation of a door frame makes it impossible to open the door. In many cases, unreinforced concrete-block walls collapse and tombstones overturn. Many automobiles stop because it becomes difficult to drive. Occasionally, poorly-installed vending machines fall. Occasionally, less earthquake-resistant houses suffer heavy damage to walls and pillars and lean. Occasionally, large cracks are formed in walls, crossbeams and pillars of less earthquake-resistant buildings and even highly earthquake-resistant buildings have cracks in walls. Occasionally, gas pipes and / or water mains are damaged.(Occasionally, gas service and / or water service are interrupted in some regions) Occasionally, cracks appear in soft ground. and rockfalls and small slope failures take place in mountainous districts. 1.40–2.50 m/s²
6-lower (6弱) / 5.5-5.9 Difficult to keep standing. A lot of heavy and unfixed furniture moves and falls. It is impossible to open the door in many cases. In some buildings, wall tiles and windowpanes are damaged and fall Occasionally, less earthquake-resistant houses collapse and even walls and pillars of highly earthquake-resistant houses are damaged. Occasionally, walls and pillars of less earthquake-resistant buildings are destroyed and even highly earthquake-resistant buildings have large cracks in walls, crossbeams and pillars. Gas pipes and / or water mains are damaged.(In some regions, gas service and water service are interrupted and electrical service is interrupted occasionally.) Occasionally, cracks appear in the ground, and landslides take place. 2.50–3.15 m/s²
6-upper (6強) / 6.0-6.4 Impossible to keep standing and to move without crawling. ost heavy and unfixed furniture moves and falls. Occasionally, sliding doors are thrown from their groove. In many buildings, wall tiles and windowpanes are damaged and fall. Most unreinforced concrete-block walls collapse. Many, less earthquake-resistant houses collapse. In some cases, even walls and pillars of highly earthquake-resistant houses are heavily damaged. Occasionally, less earthquake-resistant buildings collapse. In some cases, even highly earthquake-resistant buildings suffer damage to walls and pillars. Occasionally, gas mains and / or water mains are damaged.(Electrical service is interrupted in some regions. Occasionally, gas service and / or water service are interrupted over a large area.) Occasionally, cracks appear in the ground, and landslides take place. 3.15–4.00 m/s²
7 (7) / 6.5- up Thrown by the shaking and impossible to move at will. Most furniture moves to a large extent and some jumps up. In most buildings, wall tiles and windowpanes are damaged and fall. In some cases, reinforced concrete-block walls collapse. Occasionally, even highly earthquake-resistant buildings are severely damaged and lean. Occasionally, even highly earthquake-resistant buildings are severely damaged and lean. Electrical service gas service and water service are interrupted over a large area. The ground is considerably distorted by large cracks and fissures, and slope failures and landslides take place, which occasionally change topographic features.
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