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Source of Infection and preventive Measures
Preventive measures along with the source of infection (in detail) for major twenty-one communicable diseases are described below. All these diseases are sequenced alphabetically.

  • Caused by a virus called Human Immuno Deficiency virus.
  • There are about 13 million cases by 1999 worldwide and 6.7 million in South and South East Asia.
  • It is transmitted from person to person through sexual contact, sharing of virus contaminated needles and syringes, transfusion of infected blood.
  • Transmission at the contact with saliva, tears, urine not occurred.
  • Have sexual intercourse with wife/husband only.
  • Abstain from sexual intercourse with unknown persons.
  • Use condoms during sexual acts.
  • Use of sterilized needles / syringes, disposable needles.
  • Screening of blood and blood products.
  • Care in handling, using and disposing of blood and blood products, needles and sharp instruments.
  • Dis-infection of equipment contaminated.

  • It is an acute viral disease, with slight fever, malaise and a skin eruption.
  • It is caused by a virus Herpes virus 3.
  • Transmitted from person to person by direct contact by droplet or by air borne spread.
  • Report to local health authorities.
  • Exclude children from school,emergency rooms (or)Public places until the varicles become dry.
  • Articles contaminated should be disinfected.
  • Vaccine is recommended for susceptible persons following exposure to virus.
  • Vaccine may be given to the children aged 12 to 18 months and for the Children up to 12 years who have not had varicella.
  • The vaccine has efficacy of 70-90%.

  • Caused by bacteria vibrio cholera.
  • Affected person will have sudden onset of Profuse painless watery stools, nausea, vomiting.
  • If not treated in early stages, rapid dehydration, collapse and renal failure will occur.
  • Transmitted by ingestion of food or water contaminated directly or indirectly.
  • Report to local health authority.
  • Hospitalization of severe patients.
  • Mild cases can be treated at house by use of oral rehydration solution.
  • Treatment consist of:
    • Rehydration therapy.
    • Administration of antibiotics.
    • Treatment of complications.
  • Dis-infection of feces, vomiting and of linens, articles used by the patient.
  • Vaccination is of little practical value in outbreaks.

  • Caused by virus flavi virus.
  • There will be sudden onset, fever for 3-5 days severe headache, muscles pain,joint pain, pain in the eyes, digestive problems.
  • In hemorrhagic disease, there will be bleeding nose, gum, hypovolemia and abnormal blood clotting properties.
  • Transmitted by a mosquito Aedesaegypti.
  • Eliminating mosquito by net, protective clothing, repellants and avoiding stagnation of water.
  • Treatment is only supportive.
  • Aspirin should not be used because it may cause bleeding in the stomach.
  • The hemorrhagic cases has to be hospitalized.

  • Caused by bacteria corny bacterium diptheriae.
  • It involves tonsils, pharynx, larynx, nose, skin, conjunctiva or vagina.
  • There will be asymmetrical grayish, whitish membrane, nasal discharge.
  • Transmitted by contact with a patient or carrier.
  • Report to local health authority.
  • Effective way of control is immunization with diphtheria toxoid. At present it is given as DPT in 45 days, 75 days, 105 days of age and at 18 months as booster and as DT in 5 years of age in India.
  • Disinfections of articles soiled by discharge of patient.

Hepatitis A:
  • Start with fever malaise, anorexia, nausea and abdominal discomfort, followed by jaundice.
  • Caused by Hepatitis A Virus.
  • Transmitted from person to person by the fecal - oral route. Common source outbreaks related to contaminated water and food, infected food handlers.
  • Education about good sanitation and personal hygiene.
  • Proper water treatment.
  • Vaccines are available for 2 years of age and older.
Hepatitis B:
  • Caused by hepatitis B virus.
  • Start with nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort, joint pain and jaundice.
  • Transmitted by blood and blood produce sexual contacts, infected saliva and other body sections.

  • Caused by influenza viruses.
  • Characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, running nose, sore throat and cough.
  • Transmitted by airborne among crowded population.
  • Education about basic personal hygiene, especially danger of unprotected cough and sneezes.
  • Vaccination may provide 70-80% protection.

  • Caused by a bacteria called mycobacterium lefrae.
  • It is the bacterial disease that affects skin and peripheral nerves and the upper airway.
  • It will be presented as hypopigmented patches, thickened nerves and deformities
  • Early detection of cases with white and shining patches without any sense.
  • Prompt treatment with multidrug.
  • Health education.
  • Environmental sanitation.

  • Caused by a parasite plasmodia.
  • Start with fever, rigors, headache and nausea, sweating, fever may occur in an interval depending upon the types.
  • Source reduction and control of larval stages by sanitary improvements.
  • Early diagnosis with blood semar and treatment at the nearest Health facility such as HSC/PHC.
  • Health education
  • Screening of blood.
  • Personal protective measures.

  • Caused by measles virus.
  • Presented as fever, conjunctivitis, cold, cough and small spots with bluish white centers an red base on the buccal mucosa.
  • Transmitted by direct contact or airborne.
  • Active vaccination with measles vaccine after completion of 9 months of age among children.
  • Children affected should be kept out of schools and in isolation.

  • Caused by a bacteria Neisseria meningititis.
  • Occurs as sudden onset of fever, intense headache, nausea, vomiting, stiff neck, rash and coma.
  • Transmitted by direct contact, respiratory droplets.
  • Report to local health authorities.
  • Education on the need to reduce direct contact and droplet infection.
  • Reduce over crowding.
  • Close surveillance of household, day care.
  • Vaccines are available.

  • Caused by the bacteria bacilus (Pertusis)
  • Occurs as initiating cough which becomes repeated violent cough followed by high pitched respiratory whoop.
  • It occurs among children.
  • Transmitted by direct contact with discharges
  • Report to local health authority.
  • Active immunization which is now given along with diptheria and tetanus as DPT.
  • Isolation of cases.
  • Quaranting from schools for 21 days.
  • Education of public.

  • Caused by the bacteriae Yersinia Pestis.
  • Occurs as fever, chills, tiredness, muscle pain, nausea, sore throat and headache.
  • Enlargement of lymph nodes also occur.
  • Transmitted by the bite of infected fleas.
  • Report to local Health Authorities.
  • Reduction of flea source, control of rates.
  • Personal protection.
  • Isolation of cases.
  • Quarantine for 7 days.

  • Caused by Polio virus types 1, 2, 3.
  • Occurs as fever, malaise, headache, nausea, vomitting, muscle pain,
  • stiffness of the back and neck with FLACCID PARALYSIS.
  • Transmitted from person to person by fecal-oral route.
  • Report to the local Health Authority.
  • Active immunization with Polio vaccines It is given as oral polio drops.
  • It should be given at birth, 45 days, 75 days, 105 days and 9 months of age and at 1 1/2 years.
  • In view of eradicating polio, 2 rounds Pulse Polio is given since from 1995.
  • The child should also receive these pulse polio in addition to the routine Immunisation.
  • Personal and environment hygiene

  • Caused by virus Rabies virus.
  • Followed by a bite or scratch of a rabies affected animal.
  • Occurs as headache, fever, tiredness, indefinite sensory changes
  • The main features is excitability, aerophobia (fearness to the speed air), difficulty in swallowing, hydrophobia (fear of water).
  • Without treatment death occurs due to respiratory paralysis .
  • Register license and vaccinate all dogs.
  • Treat the wound immediately by thorough cleaning.The wound should not be sutured.
  • Effective vaccination is available for the both exposed and non-exposed persons.

  • Caused by Variola virus.
  • Occurs as sudden fever, malaise, headache, prostration, severe backache, abdominal pain and vomiting.
  • A deep-seated rash developed with face and extremities.
  • Transmitted from person to person.
  • In Biowar it would most likely be disseminated in an aerosol cloud.
  • Report to local Health Authority.
  • Vaccine is available.
  • This disease was eradicated globally in 8th May, 1980.

  • Caused by bacteria Group A Streptoccoci.
  • Occurs as fever, sore throat, oxidative tonsillitis, pharyngitis, tender enlarged lymphnods at neck, ear infection.
  • Typical rash will occur which is usually a fine, reddish, blanching on pressure, appears on neck, chest, axilla, elbow groin and inner surfaces of thighs.
  • Transmitted by direct contact or by respiratory droplets.
  • Rheumatic fever and effect on kidney may occur as complication
  • Education
    • about modes of transmission.
    • relationship with Rheumatic fever.
    • adherence to the treatment.
  • Pasteurize the milk.
  • Exclude infected people from handling milk and food.
  • Treatment with penicillin may reduce the complication.

  • Caused by bacteria clostridium tetani.
  • Occurs as painful muscular contraction, first affecting the cheek and neck muscles and then trunk muscles.
  • A common first sign in older children and adult is adbominal rigidity.
  • Transmitted by wound contaminated with soil, feces.
  • It occurs in new borns which is called as neonatal tetanus if safety methods are not followed during delivery.
  • Immunization with tetanus toxoid.
  • Pregnant Women: 2 doses of tetanus toxoid at 16-20 weeks and 24 weeks of pregnancy to prevent neonatal tetanus.
  • For Infants:
    • included in DPT and to be given at 45 days, 75 days, 105 days and 1 1/2 years of birth.
    • DT at fifth year.
    • TT at 10th year and once in five years.
    • Thorough cleaning of the wound.

  • Caused by bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • It affects lungs, mainly intestine, brain, bones and joints lymph glanes.
  • Occurs as cough more than 3 weeks, fever, loss of weight, and loss of appetite.
  • Transmitted as airborne droplet.
  • Education about the importance of early diagnosis and prompt treatment.
  • Improvement in housing ventilation.
  • Environmental sanitation.
  • BCG Vaccine at the time of birth.
  • To combat the tuberculosis now, revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme is being implemented in Govt.PHCs / Hospitals which ensures the successful treatment.

  • Caused by bacteria salmonella typhi.
  • Occurs as sustained fever, severe headache, tiredness, splenomegaly, slowing of heart beat (Bradycardia), rose spots on the trunk.
  • Transmitted by contaminated food and water.
  • Proper hand washing and other personal hygiene.
  • Drinking of chlorinated, purified and boiled water.
  • Control of flies.
  • Preventing typhoid patients and carriers from handling of foods.
  • Using latrines for defecation.
  • Vaccination is also available.

  • Caused by many viruses.
  • Occurs as sudden fever, severe headache, vomiting, and stiffness of neck.
  • Transmitted person-to-person, direct contact.
  • Report to local Health Authority.
  • Environment and personal hygiene.
  • Food and water sanitation.
  • Prompt treatment.
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