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PROTECTION FROM NUCLEAR DETONATION

Nuclear device explosion releases tremendous amount of energy in the form of blast, beat and ionizing radiations. A meticulous planning and availability at the time of crisis of various protective devices, equipments, stores and consumables shall reduce risk. The various actions to combat the effects of nuclear device burst are as under-

Individual actions soon after warned :
  • Eyes' Protection: Never look at the fire ball, remove spectacles and cover eyes with palm to save from burn and dazzle.
  • Skin Protection: Cover all possible skin areas with cloths/pads- reduce 50% heat.
  • Take position in shelter or trenches.
  • Clothes: Loose clothes are preferred to save from burn.
  • Head Protection: Wear Helmet/ Headgear/Shield covering face and eyes to save from burn, debris, impact and flying objects.
  • Paints: Remove dark coloured paints, etc to reduce heat absorption.
  • Ear Protection: Plug ears to save from blast waves.
  • Fire Protection: Dark coloured clothes catch fire easily, thus avoid.
  • Protective masks dark in colour and made of rubber be avoided.
Pits in Earth:
  • Taking refuge in underground pits (~ 1 m depth) protects from INR (neutrons and gammas).
  • Pits should have smaller round foxholes.
  • Keep as low as possible- lying on ground.
  • About a meter of earth on pit reduces the radiation levels to about 0.2-0.4%.
Pits in Earth:
  • Use earth, sand or compact clay.
  • Wet sandbags or water absorb neutrons.
  • Cover sandbags with earth to protect from fire.
  • Keep shelter opening small.
  • Protect yourself inside the shelter, lying facedown on floor of the shelter.
Shelters in Building:
  • Choose carefully - Steel / RCC structure, Ammunition magazines.
  • Get below the ground level- Basement is best to save from blast and heat
  • Shelter in tents not preferred.
Armored and Wheeled Vehicles:
  • Assure positions at the bottom and wear helmet.
  • Secure all loose equipments.
  • Put vehicles in trenches.
  • Avoid the use of wheeled vehicles.
Equipment: Protection before attack
  • Cover and conceal in the underground pit.
  • Immobilize all loose equipments.
  • Store under-water in sealed covers.
  • Seek refuge in shelter/tunnel/magazines/trenches.
  • Anchor / tie down when possible.
Tanks & Armored Vehicles: Protection before Attack
  • Head on blast direction for minimum damage.
  • Assume position at the bottom of hill.
  • Cover gun muzzles, optical equipments, and rote turret away from the blast.
Wheeled Vehicles: Protection before Attack
  • Place head in the blast direction to save from damage.
  • Place two or more vehicles side by side.
  • Leave brakes and transmission disengaged for minimum blast effect.
  • Cover / remove glasses.
  • Protect vehicles in trenches, do not park on platforms.
Aircrafts: Protection before Attack
  • Gain distance.
  • Tape window glasses.
  • Place in paraments.
  • Tie down.
  • Cover exposed area of the cockpit.


Action during the Attack by the Individuals
a.IN OPEN
  • Immediately drop on ground, head towards GZ.
  • Protect eyes, ears, fingers, thumb and exposed skin.
  • Stay down until the initial shock wave comes to end.
  • Say "Ram/Allah/Jesus/Vahe Guru" for 10 times.
  • (Blast wave arrives in about 5 seconds if located far off from GZ. Radiation dose < 150 rads)
b. IN FOXHOLE
  • Get as low and as fast as you can.
  • Stay down till winds calm down.
c. IN SHELTER or BUILDINGS
  • Drop on the floor on seeing flash.
  • Stay down till winds calm down.
  • Drive away from windows and doors.
d. IN ARMOURED VEHICLE
  • Brace yourself against head/shoulder injury.
  • Stay buttoned up.
e. IN WHEELED VEHICLES
  • On seeing flash drive from Vehicle.
  • Lye down keeping face towards ground in the direction of flash (to save from vehicle over turning on you).


Actions Immediately After Nuclear Weapon Burst
  • Stay down under cover until debris stops falling.
  • Stay down for 90 seconds, by then blast, heat, I NR and falling debris are over.
  • Stay calm- Avoid panic due to bum injuries, dazzle or INR.
  • Remember- Blast winds end in about 2 minutes.
  • Bums and cuts are normal and Dazzle is temporary
  • On survival after blast, exposure to lethal radiation dose is small
Things to DO
  • Put off fire and be aware of weak structures.
  • Overturned vehicles be set right.
  • Clean vehicles, ensure working of artillery and field equipments.
  • Improve your personal cover to protect from delayed radiations.
Actions After Fall Out
  • Monitor radiation levels continuously and inform the Command Head Quarter.
  • Keep calm and follow the orders of higher Command.
  • Clean fall out to reduce radioactivity levels.
  • Clean area around the shelter in ~ 4-8 m radius to reduce 50% radiation levels.
  • Do not leave the protected area/shelter if outside radiation high and make only calculated moves to restrict the radiation dose to minimum.
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