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(i) Geo Informatics

Geoinformatics, which combines Remote Sensing, Geographical Information System (GIS), and Global Positioning systems (GPS) Information which can assist in all phases of disaster and disaster management viz. (1) prediction, (2) prevention, forecasting monitoring and warning system (3) assessment of damages and (4) post-disaster management. These technologies may also be used for computer modeling for studying complex spatial patterns, distribution of and likelihood of integration of multiple data layers and cause and effect relationships. Deterministic and stochastic models are capable of explaining the impacts of such hazards.

The Earth Observation satellites provide comprehensive, synoptic and multi temporal coverage of large areas in real time and at frequent intervals and thus have become valuable for continuous monitoring of atmospheric as well as surface parameters related to natural disasters. Geo-stationary satellites provide continuous and synoptic observations over large areas on weather including cyclone-monitoring. Polar orbiting satellites have the advantage of providing much higher resolution imageries, even though at low temporal frequency, which could be used for detailed monitoring, damage assessment and long-term relief management.

The vast capabilities of communication satellites are available for timely dissemination of early warning and real-time coordination of relief operations. The advent of Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT) and Ultra Small Aperture Terminals (USAT) and phased - array antennae have enhanced the capability further by offering low cost, viable technological solutions towards management and mitigation of disasters. Satellite communication capabilities- fixed and mobile are vital for effective communication, especially in data collection, distress alerting, position location and coordinating relief operations in the field. In addition, Search and Rescue satellites provide capabilities such as position determination facilities onboard which could be useful in a variety of land, sea and air distress situations.

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